The agreement between the EU and Iran on the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) is the culmination of 20 months of “work-intensive” negotiations.   In 2020, TRUMP and Pompeo said the United States remained a “participant” in the agreement, although it formally withdrew in 2018 to convince the U.N. Security Council to reinstate sanctions against Iran after the U.S. withdrawal for its violations of the agreement. The agreement provided for a liquidation procedure between the signatories in the event of an infringement, but this process had not yet taken place.  Iran Project, a non-profit organization run by former U.S. diplomats and funded by the Rockefeller Brothers Fund in collaboration with the United Nations Association of the United States, supported the agreement.  The Rockefeller Fund also supported the San Francisco-based Ploughshares fund, which was supported for several years.  Carter stated that the agreement had prevented Iran from “maintaining a nuclear weapon in a complete and verifiable manner.”  He assured the Committee that the agreement would not reduce the ability of the United States to respond with military force if necessary.  To a question from McCain, Carter replied that he had “no reason to foreshadow” that the agreement would continue to change Iran`s threatening behavior: “That is why it is important that Iran does not have a nuclear weapon.”   Dempsey offered what he called a “pragmatic” vision.  He neither praised nor criticized the agreement, but testified that the agreement reduced the chances of a short-term military conflict between the United States and Iran.  Dempsey stated that the agreement was aimed at deterring Iran from developing nuclear weapons, but did not respond to other concerns about Iran`s malicious activities in the region, ranging from ballistic missile technology to the arms trade to… malicious activities in cyberspace.”  He stated, “Ultimately, Iranian time and behavior will determine whether the nuclear agreement is effective and sustainable” and said he would continue to provide military options to the president.
 Senator Joni Ernst disagrees with Obama`s statement that the election is the nuclear deal with Iran or war. When Dempsey testified that the United States had “a number of options” that he had presented to Obama, Ernst said, “It is imperative that everyone on the board understands that there are other options.”  In the july 23, 2015 televised speeches, Iranian President Hassan Rouhani rejected the Iranian extremists` internal criticism of the JCPOA, “like the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps and its allies,” who “criticized the agreement as an invasive affront to the country`s sovereignty and as a capitulation to foreign opponents, especially the United States.”  In his statements, described by the New York Times as “blunt” and not typically open, Rouhani claimed a popular mandate to strike a deal based on his election in 2013 and warned that the alternative was an “economic stone age” caused by sanctions that (as the Times described) “reduced oil exports and prevented the country from accessing the global banking system.”  On 26 July, a top secret two-page directive to the editors of Iranian newspapers at Iran`s Supreme National Security Council appeared online.  The document instructs newspapers to avoid criticizing the agreement and not to give the impression of a “fracture” at the highest levels of government.  The BBC reported that the document was apparently intended to limit Iranian extremists` criticism of the JCPOA.  In August 2005, the new Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad immediately accused the Iranian negotiators who had negotiated the Paris agreements of treason.   Over the next two months, the EU-3 agreement failed when talks on the long-term agreement proposed by the EU3 failed; The Iranian government “felt that the proposal firmly on demands, light on incentives, does not contain Iranian proposals and violates the Paris agreement.”   Iran informed the IAEA that it would resume